Brazilian fertility regimes: profiles of women below and above replacement levels
Elza Berquó, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Suzana M. Cavenaghi, National School of Statistics (ENCE/IBGE)
In Brazil as in many other countries, education and income are negatively correlated with fertility levels and, despite the trend toward convergence among socioeconomic groups, fertility levels are still quite different from one group to another. Here we attempt to quantify, locate and qualify what groups showed under-replacement fertility rates and which still showed high fertility rates during the last decade. We also discuss possible future trends. The results indicate that, by controlling the categories of years of schooling and average per-capita family income in 1991, 35% of Brazilian women were in under-replacement fertility regimes. This percentage increased to 42% in 2000. In contrast, 11% of the women were still in a high fertility regime in 1991 (five or more children); this figure fell to 6% in 2000.